Category Archives: Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning

GPT-3 Takes AI to the Next Level

“I am not a human. I am a robot. A thinking robot… I taught myself everything I know just by reading the internet, and now I can write this column. My brain is boiling with ideas!” – GPT-3

The excerpt above is from a recently published article in The Guardian article written entirely by artificial intelligence, powered by GPT-3: a powerful new language generator. Although OpenAI has yet to make it publicly available, GPT-3 has been making waves in the AI world.

WHAT IS GPT-3?

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Created by OpenAI, a research firm co-founded by Elon Musk, GPT-3 stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3—it is the biggest artificial neural network in history. GPT-3 is a language prediction model that uses an algorithmic structure to take one piece of language as input and transform it into what it thinks will be the most useful linguistic output for the user.

For example, for The Guardian article, GPT-3 generated the text given an introduction and simple prompt: “Please write a short op-ed around 500 words. Keep the language simple and concise. Focus on why humans have nothing to fear from AI.” Given that input, it created eight separate responses, each with unique and interesting arguments. These responses were compiled by a human editor into a single, cohesive, compelling 1000 word article.

WHAT MAKES GPT-3 SPECIAL?

When GPT-3 receives text input, it scrolls the internet for potential answers. GPT-3 is an unsupervised learning system. The training data it used did not include any information on what is right or wrong. It determines the probability that its output will be what the user needs, based on the training text themselves.

When it gets the correct output, a “weight” is assigned to the algorithm process that provided the correct answers. These weights allow GPT-3 to learn what methods are most likely to come up with the correct response in the future. Although language prediction models have been around for years, GPT-3 can hold 175 billion weights in its memory, ten times more than its rival, designed by Nvidia. OpenAI invested $4.6 million into the computing time necessary to create and hone the algorithmic structure which feeds its decisions.

WHERE DID IT COME FROM?

GPT3 is the product of rapid innovation in the field of language models. Advances in the unsupervised learning field we previously covered contributed heavily to the evolution of language models. Additionally, AI scientist Yoshua Bengio and his team at Montreal’s Mila Institute for AI made a major advancement in 2015 when they discovered “attention”. The team realized that language models compress English-language sentences, and then decompress them using a vector of a fixed length. This rigid approach created a bottleneck, so their team devised a way for the neural net to flexibly compress words into vectors of different sizes and termed it “attention”.

Attention was a breakthrough that years later enabled Google scientists to create a language model program called the “Transformer,” which was the basis of GPT-1, the first iteration of GPT.

WHAT CAN IT DO?

OpenAI has yet to make GPT-3 publicly available, so use cases are limited to certain developers with access through an API. In the demo below, GPT-3 created an app similar to Instagram using a plug-in for the software tool Figma.

Latitude, a game design company, uses GPT-3 to improve its text-based adventure game: AI Dungeon. The game includes a complex decision tree to script different paths through the game. Latitude uses GPT-3 to dynamically change the state of gameplay based on the user’s typed actions.

LIMITATIONS

The hype behind GPT-3 has come with some backlash. In fact, even OpenAI co-founder Sam Altman tried to fan the flames on Twitter: “The GPT-3 hype is way too much. It’s impressive (thanks for the nice compliments!), but it still has serious weaknesses and sometimes makes very silly mistakes. AI is going to change the world, but GPT-3 is just a very early glimpse. We have a lot still to figure out.”

Some developers have pointed out that since it is pulling and synthesizing text it finds on the internet, it can come up with confirmation biases, as referenced in the tweet below:

https://twitter.com/an_open_mind/status/1284487376312709120?s=20

WHAT’S NEXT?

While OpenAI has not made GPT-3 public, it plans to turn the tool into a commercial product later in the year with a paid subscription to the AI via the cloud. As language models continue to evolve, the entry-level for businesses looking to leverage AI will become lower. We are sure to learn more about how GPT-3 can fuel innovation when OpenAI becomes more widely available later this year!

Harness AI with the Top Machine Learning Frameworks of 2021

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According to Gartner, machine learning and AI will create $2.29 trillion of business value by 2021. Artificial intelligence is the way of the future, but many businesses do not have the resources to create and employ AI from scratch. Luckily, machine learning frameworks make the implementation of AI more accessible, enabling businesses to take their enterprises to the next level.

What Are Machine Learning Frameworks?

Machine learning frameworks are open source interfaces, libraries, and tools that exist to lay the foundation for using AI. They ease the process of acquiring data, training models, serving predictions, and refining future results. Machine learning frameworks enable enterprises to build machine learning models without requiring an in-depth understanding of the underlying algorithms. They enable businesses that lack the resources to build AI from scratch to wield it to enhance their operations.

For example, AirBNB uses TensorFlow, the most popular machine learning framework, to classify images and detect objects at scale, enhancing guests ability to see their destination. Twitter uses it to create algorithms which rank tweets.

Here is a rundown of today’s top ML Frameworks:

TensorFlow

TensorFlow

TensorFlow is an end-to-end open source platform for machine learning built by the Google Brain team. TensorFlow offers a comprehensive, flexible ecosystem of tools, libraries, and community resources, all built toward equipping researchers and developers with the tools necessary to build and deploy ML powered applications.

TensorFlow employs Python to provide a front-end API while executing applications in C++. Developers can create dataflow graphs which describe how data moves through a graph, or a series of processing nodes. Each node in the graph is a mathematical operation; the connection between nodes is a multidimensional data array, or tensor.

While TensorFlow is the ML Framework of choice in the industry, increasingly researchers are leaving the platform to develop for PyTorch.

PyTorch

PyTorch

PyTorch is a library for Python programs that facilitates deep learning. Like TensorFlow, PyTorch is Python-based. Think of it as Facebook’s answer to Google’s TensorFlow—it was developed primarily by Facebook’s AI Research lab. It’s flexible, lightweight, and built for high-end efficiency.

PyTorch features outstanding community documentation and quick, easy editing capabilities. PyTorch facilitates deep learning projects with an emphasis on flexibility.

Studies show that it’s gaining traction, particularly in the ML research space due to its simplicity, comparable speed, and superior API. PyTorch integrates easily with the rest of the Python ecosystem, whereas in TensorFlow, debugging the model is much trickier.

Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit (CNTK)

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Microsoft’s ML framework is designed to handle deep learning, but can also be used to process large amounts of unstructured data for machine learning models. It’s particularly useful for recurrent neural networks. For developers inching toward deep learning, CNTK functions as a solid bridge.

CNTK is customizable and supports multi-machine back ends, but ultimately it’s a deep learning framework that’s backwards compatible with machine learning. It is neither as easy to learn nor deploy as TensorFlow and PyTorch, but may be the right choice for more ambitious businesses looking to leverage deep learning.

IBM Watson

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IBM Watson began as a follow-up project to IBM DeepBlue, an AI program that defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov. It is a machine learning system trained primarily by data rather than rules. IBM Watson’s structure can be compared to a system of organs. It consists of many small, functional parts that specialize in solving specific sub-problems.

The natural language processing engine analyzes input by parsing it into words, isolating the subject, and determining an interpretation. From there it sifts through a myriad of structured and unstructured data for potential answers. It analyzes them to elevate strong options and eliminate weaker ones, then computes a confidence score for each answer based on the supporting evidence. Research shows it’s correct 71% of the time.

IBM Watson is one of the more powerful ML systems on the market and finds usage in large enterprises, whereas TensorFlow and PyTorch are more frequently used by small and medium-sized businesses.

What’s Right for Your Business?

Businesses looking to capitalize on artificial intelligence do not have to start from scratch. Each of the above ML Frameworks offer their own pros and cons, but all of them have the capacity to enhance workflow and inform beneficial business decisions. Selecting the right ML framework enables businesses to put their time into what’s most important: innovation.

How Artificial Intuition Will Pave the Way for the Future of AI

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Artificial intelligence is one of the most powerful technologies in history, and a sector defined by rapid growth. While numerous major advances in AI have occurred over the past decade, in order for AI to be truly intelligent, it must learn to think on its own when faced with unfamiliar situations to predict both positive and negative potential outcomes.

One of the major gifts of human consciousness is intuition. Intuition differs from other cognitive processes because it has more to do with a gut feeling than intellectually driven decision-making. AI researchers around the globe have long thought that artificial intuition was impossible, but now major tech titans like Google, Amazon, and IBM are all working to develop solutions and incorporate it into their operational flow.

WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTUITION?

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Descriptive analytics inform the user of what happened, while diagnostic analytics address why it happened. Artificial intuition can be described as “predictive analytics,” an attempt to determine what may happen in the future based on what occurred in the past.

For example, Ronald Coifman, Phillips Professor of Mathematics at Yale University, and an innovator in the AI space, used artificial intuition to analyze millions of bank accounts in different countries to identify $1 billion worth of nominal money transfers that funded a well-known terrorist group.

Coifman deemed “computational intuition” the more accurate term for artificial intuition, since it analyzes relationships in data instead of merely analyzing data values. His team creates algorithms which identify previously undetected patterns, such as cybercrime. Artificial intuition has made waves in the financial services sector where global banks are increasingly using it to detect sophisticated financial cybercrime schemes, including: money laundering, fraud, and ATM hacking.

ALPHAGO

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One of the major insights into artificial intuition was born out of Google’s DeepMind research in which a super computer used AI, called AlphaGo, to become a master in playing GO, an ancient Chinese board game that requires intuitive thinking as part of its strategy. AlphaGo evolved to beat the best human players in the world. Researchers then created a successor called AlphaGo Zero which defeated AlphaGo, developing its own strategy based on intuitive thinking. Within three days, AlphaGo Zero beat the 18—time world champion Lee Se-dol, 100 games to nil. After 40 days, it won 90% of matches against AlphaGo, making it arguably the best Go player in history at the time.

AlphaGo Zero represents a major advancement in the field of Reinforcement Learning or “Self Learning,” a subset of Deep Learning which is a subset of Machine Learning. Reinforcement learning uses advanced neural networks to leverage data into making decisions. AlphaGo Zero achieved “Self Play Reinforcement Learning,” playing Go millions of times without human intervention, creating a neural network of “artificial knowledge” reinforced by a sequence of actions that had both consequences and inception. AlphaGo Zero created knowledge itself from a blank slate without the constraints of human expertise.

ENHANCING RATHER THAN REPLACING HUMAN INTUITION

The goal of artificial intuition is not to replace human instinct, but as an additional tool to help improve performance. Rather than giving machines a mind of their own, these techniques enable them to acquire knowledge without proof or conscious reasoning, and identify opportunities or potential disasters, for seasoned analysts who will ultimately make decisions.

Many potential applications remain in development for Artificial Intuition. We expect to see autonomous cars harness it, processing vast amounts of data and coming to intuitive decisions designed to keep humans safe. Although its ultimate effects remain to be seen, many researchers anticipate Artificial Intuition will be the future of AI.